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What is Amoxicillin?
Amoxicillin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. It is intended for effective control of many known infectious-inflammatory diseases. This drug has a broad spectrum of action and contributes to the death of most pathogenic microorganisms. Instructions for use Amoxicillin indicates that the drug is active against aerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The medicine blocks the division of the bacterial cell and hinders the vital activity and reproduction of the pathogenic microorganism.
It is associated with the group of aminopenicillins having an extended spectrum of activity in the field of certain bacteria (Gram-negative rods) in comparison to the classic penicillin G or penicillin V. Amoxicillin is recorded in comparison to other, older aminopenicillins (such as Ampicillin) in taking over his mouth better in the body and therefore often preferred in the Regulation by the physician. In drugs, the antibiotic is often present as Amoxicillin trihydrate ago, partly as Amoxicillin sodium or combined as Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid preparation.
How it works?
Semisynthetic drug from the penicillin group. The mechanism of action of this drug is based on its ability to specifically inhibit peptoglycans (enzymes of bacterial cell membranes), which leads to death and dissolution of the cell.
Amoxicillin is active against:
Gram-positive aerobic bacteria – Staphylococcus spp. (with the exception of strains producing penicillinase), Streptococcus spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium spp. (except Corynebacterium jeikeium), Bacillus anthracis.
Gram-negative aerobic bacteria – Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia sp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter, Haemophilus spp., Proteus mirabilis, Leptospira spp., Neisseria spp.
Others include Chlamydia spp., Clostridium spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Fusobacterium spp.
Amoxicillin does not collapse under the influence of gastric juice and is completely adsorbed from the digestive tract. The maximum concentration in plasma reaches in 1-2 hours. When the dose is doubled, its concentration also increases by a factor of 2. Total absorption does not depend on the presence of food in the stomach.
The binding of an active substance with plasma proteins is 20%. The drug is distributed to all tissues and body fluids. Quickly wilts into the lung tissue, the fluid of the middle ear, bronchial secretion, urine and bile. In high concentrations, it accumulates in the liver.
The half-life is 1-1.5 hours. In patients of advanced years and newborns, T1 / 2 is more prolonged. With renal failure – up to 20 hours. About 60% of Amoxicillin is excreted by the kidneys, a small part – by the intestine, along with the feces. With inflammation of the mild cerebral membrane, the preparation in small amounts is able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, it is removed during hemodialysis. Penetrates into the placenta and is excreted in breast milk.
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic that has a wide range of effects. A group of antibiotics are semisynthetic penicillins. The abstract indicates that the drug is a 4-hydroxyl analogue of ampicillin. Provides bactericidal effect. Demonstrates activity against aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, namely Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. (except for those strains that produce penicillinase). It is also active against aerobic gram-negative bacteria: Shigella spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp.
Amoxicillin inhibits a bacterial enzyme (transpeptidase) and thus the final step of bacterial cell wall synthesis: It binds to the active site of the enzyme and blocks this thereby irreversibly. With growth and multiplication of the bacteria cell wall is dissolved constantly in places and then re-cross-linked and thus solidified. By inhibiting the enzyme crosslinking the cell wall dissolves and can not be re-linked – the bacterium dies. Thus, the antibiotic has a bakterienabtötenden (bactericidal) effect.
Amoxicillin is well absorbed when taken orally and is stomach acid stable – it can thus be taken as a tablet without having to dose it is extremely high, which reduces the risk for side effects.
When is Amoxicillin used?
- Bacterial diarrhea, dysentery and other intestinal pathologies of infectious origin;
- Middle and outer otitis, unspecified etiology;
- Acute and subacute endocarditis;
- Acute respiratory infections;
- Sinusitis (acute form);
- Acute pharyngitis, unspecified etiology;
- Chronical bronchitis;
- Infections of urogenital organs without specified localization.
Application in pregnancy and lactation
Amoxicillin penetrates through the placental barrier, in small quantities excreted in breast milk.
If you need to use amoxicillin during pregnancy, you should carefully weigh the expected benefit of therapy for the mother and the potential risk to the fetus.
With caution apply amoxicillin during lactation (breastfeeding)
How to Take?
The antibiotic will normally be administered orally, that is, it is taken as a tablet and swallowed. Usually Amoxicillin three times daily, ie in the eight-hour cycle, occupied, partly even twice a day. This rhythm should be strictly adhered to in order to hinder the bacteria optimally in their growth. If possible, the antibiotic should be taken at the beginning of a meal, because it is then better tolerated.
Usually prescribe Amoxicillin dosage between 250 and 1000 milligrams of the Doctor.
One way to improve the effectiveness of the drug is the concomitant administration of clavulanic acid, sulbactam or tazobactam. These substances inhibit an enzyme of bacteria (beta-lactamase) that would otherwise degrade the antibiotic.
Side effects of Amoxicillin
As a serious side effect Amoxicillin, like other penicillins an allergic reaction cause (Amoxicillin allergy). Often when penicillins occurs a cross allergy, that is. Who is allergic to a particular penicillin antibiotic, then very likely to other penicillins
As a typical and frequent unwanted side effect the antibiotic can lead to digestive problems (such as), because it brings the normal intestinal flora mess. As a consequence, also reinforced fungi in the intestines can spread because they are held by the now disturbed intestinal flora no longer at bay. In the worst case, Amoxicillin-resistant bacteria can also multiply quickly and cause significantly more damage.
With poisonous (toxic) side effects for Amoxicillin must not be counted, because it has a wide therapeutic range, so is dangerous only at extremely high doses.
In some cases, the disease, the antibiotic is injected into the subarachnoid space (cavity system in the brain and around the spinal cord around, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid = CSF). In this so-called intrathecal administration may lead to neurological problems.
In patients with disorders of the liver or kidney function, the Amoxicillin dosage should be.
In order to prevent that the bacteria are resistant to the antibiotic that prescribed by the doctor quantity, dose and duration of application should always be strictly adhered to. Above all, the treatment should not be terminated unilaterally prematurely, even if the symptoms have improved.
In a known hypersensitivity to antibiotics from the groups of penicillins or cephalosporins should be dispensed with administration of Amoxicillin.
After consultation with the doctor, the antibiotic can be usually applied during pregnancy and lactation. However, then the infant should be monitored for possible side effects of Amoxicillin.
Milk enjoyment is in the Amoxicillin-income, unlike other antibiotics (Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones) without any problems.
Experts strongly recommend that during the use of Amoxicillin to avoid alcohol. Both the antibiotic and the alcohol must in fact be broken down by the liver, and this double burden can cause or intensify adverse effects.
How to get Amoxicillin?
Amoxicillin is a prescription drug, You can get it on prescription in pharmacies.
How long is Amoxicillin known?
The actual Urpenicillin, penicillin G, was discovered in 1928 by the Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming. He noted that one of his bacterial cultures of Staphylococcus, was attacked by a fungus and wherever spread the fungus, no bacterial growth was evident. This fungus therefore had to develop a poison against these bacteria, he called this henceforth penicillin, the fungus Penicillium notatum. Amoxicillin is a penicillin derivative. It came in 1972 on the market, was established in 1977 approved in United Kingdom, Switzerland and in Germany in 1981.