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The active ingredient Ampicillin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic from the group of (amino) penicillins. It can be used in a variety of bacterial infections and is well tolerated, but dissolves in patients with penicillin allergy severe allergic reactions. Here you can read everything relevant to effects of Ampicillin, dosage and application.
How Ampicillin acts
Like other penicillins Ampicillin affects the formation of the cell wall of bacteria. In order to be able to divide and multiply, bacteria need to constantly dissolve their cell wall at locations again and new ones from forming. Ampicillin binds targeted to the bacterial enzymes that build the cell wall again and ensure their strength. In the therapy with Ampicillin, the bacteria are therefore not killed, but only hindered in their division and proliferation, one speaks of a bacteriostatic effect. The immune system can so the division incompetent intruders are Lord, and ultimately they kill.
After taking Ampicillin about 30 to 60 percent of the amount of drug are absorbed through the intestinal mucosa. The maximum blood levels are achieved by about two hours after ingestion. The antibiotic is predominantly excreted unchanged in the urine. About an hour after ingestion has half of the active ingredient to leave in this way the body.
When will Ampicillin used?
Ampicillin is used in the treatment of many bacterial infections, such as infections:
- in the field of ear, nose and throat (ENT),
- Renal undableitenden urinary tract,
- the genitals,
- the gastrointestinal tract,
- the skin and soft tissues,
- the eyes and
- the gall bladder and bile ducts.
The antibiotic should be used only in the short term to prevent the bacteria resistant (resistant) are against it.
How Ampicillin is used
Ampicillin is usually taken in the form of tablets. In an inpatient treatment at the hospital, it may also be administered as injection or infusion.
The tablets must be taken three due to the rapid clearance of the active substance to four times daily. Only then can a steady drug levels in the body to achieve. The dosage depends on age, body weight and other parameters, ranging from two to six grams of Ampicillin. The duration of therapy is usually seven to ten days, but it should be continued for at least two to three days after symptoms have resolved.
Ampicillin often is combined with a so called beta-lactamase inhibitor sulbactam like. This enhances the effect of the antibiotic with bacterial strains capable of degrading penicillins to inactive metabolites.
What are the side effects of Ampicillin?
With more than one in ten patients the antibiotic nausea, redness and dissolves. Since the latter indicating an allergic reaction, important that a physician should be contacted when this happen.
More rarely occur changes in liver enzymes, and other non-specific side effects.
What should be considered when taking Ampicillin?
Some other drugs may interact with Ampicillin.
Thus, the concomitant use of medications for gout (probenecid, Allopurinol) to higher blood levels of Ampicillin and an increased risk of skin reactions.
anticoagulant coumarin-type (phenprocoumon, warfarin) may have a greater effect when they are combined with Ampicillin.
The drug Methotrexate, which is used in rheumatoid arthritis, various types of cancer and autoimmune diseases is inhibited in its precipitation, when combined with Ampicillin. This Methotrexate levels in the body, which can also enhance the adverse drug reactions increase.
Another important interaction between Ampicillin and hormonal contraceptives (“the pill”). Will these medicines applied together, even if this takes place at different times, the contraceptive effect of the pill is not assured. It should therefore be prevented in addition to non-hormonal way, for example with a condom.
Although emerged from studies in pregnant women have any harmful effects on the child, the active ingredient Ampicillin should be used during pregnancy only with caution. He also passes into breast milk, so should avoid breastfeeding while taking. Overall, the following applies: The application of the antibiotic during pregnancy and lactation should be done only after careful risk-benefit assessment by the responsible doctor
In a renal impairment may need, depending on the kidney functions, the Ampicillin dose reduced.
Ampicillin may also be used in neonates, children and adolescents in a correspondingly reduced dose for treating bacterial infections. Note, however, that children under six often have trouble swallowing pills. Here should be resorting to other forms of administration.
How to obtain drugs with Ampicillin
medication with Ampicillin obtained by a doctor’s prescription in the pharmacy.
Since when Ampicillin is known?
Ampicillin was brought by the British pharmaceutical company Beecham in 1961 to the market. Before that only so-called gram-positive bacteria were treated with penicillins. In addition, the drugs had to be administered as an injection or infusion. The active substance Ampicillin on the other hand acts as a broad-spectrum antibiotic against gram-negative bacteria and can be applied in the form of tablets.