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The active ingredient Atomoxetine is used for the treatment of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). He is not classified to other drugs for ADHD treatment as an anesthetic in contrast and has no dependence potential. Here you can read everything about the Atomoxetine-effects and use and possible side effects.
How Atomoxetine acts
The attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), partly also known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, usually already starts during childhood and is comprised of various symptoms. Usually those affected show a limited attention, increased impulsivity, and physical restlessness. The extent of mental disorder determines whether a psychotherapeutic or pharmacological treatment is necessary.
Of the stimulants typically used in ADHD treatment (such as methylphenidate and amphetamine) deviates significantly from Atomoxetine. The mentioned stimulants increase concentration of certain messengers in the brain (mainly of norepinephrine and) communicate via the nerve cells (neurons) together. Thus, the ADHD symptoms get better.
The active ingredient Atomoxetine constructed chemically very similar to the antidepressant Fluoxetine, occupies an intermediate position between ADHD medication and antidepressant. The effect arises as with antidepressants only after a few weeks, but Atomoxetine does not act as an antidepressant. In the brain it acts rather as a so-called selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NARI – “noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors”). Thus, the concentration of this neurotransmitter increases. The dopamine hormone balance is not affected to a relevant degree. Experts believe that Atomoxetine among others has therefore no dependence potential – it acts staggered and causes no immediate payout from the “happiness hormone” dopamine
Another effect which still needs to be studied in detail, the effect of Atomoxetine on so-called NMDA receptors in the brain. Scientists currently believe that this messenger is also instrumental in the development of ADHD.
Up, degradation and excretion of Atomoxetine
After taking over the mouth of the active compound is taken Atomoxetine quickly through the intestinal mucosa into the blood. There he reached after one to two hours the highest levels. In the liver, Atomoxetine is degraded by the enzyme cytochrome 2D6, whereupon it is rapidly excreted in the urine. However, have about seven percent of the Caucasian population, this enzyme in a variant that works less well, so that the degradation and excretion can be delayed by Atomoxetine. At the beginning of treatment with Atomoxetine therefore a very low dosage is chosen and this gradually increased. In patients with normal enzyme activity about half of the drug is excreted by three and a half hours in the urine.
When to use Atomoxetine?
Atomoxetine used for treating ADHD in children aged six years, adolescents and adults. The treatment should be performed by a physician with appropriate expertise and be part of an overall treatment plan, and so, for example, psychological, educational and social measures.
For other applications Atomoxetine is not allowed. The active ingredient but is applied by doctors “off-label” (ie outside the stated scope of accreditation) and eating disorders, depression associated with ADHD, bedwetting in children and for weight loss.
How is Atomoxetine used
The ingestion of Atomoxetine is usually carried out as a single dose in the morning. The capsule can be taken with or without a meal with sufficient liquid. When adverse drug reactions after taking (eg, nausea) taking even half each morning and evening can be done.
In children and adolescents over 70 kg bodyweight and adults comes at the beginning usually a dose of 40 milligrams of Atomoxetine for at least a week to use. The dosage may depend on the effect (this is only after two to four weeks completely a) to 80 milligrams Atomoxetine increased. For children and adolescents under 70 kg, the dosage should be reduced accordingly. The manufacturer’s recommended maximum daily dose is 100 milligrams of active ingredient, since higher doses does not necessarily cause an increased effect.
What are the side effects Atomoxetine?
With more than one in ten patients experience undesirable effects such as decreased appetite, drowsiness, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, increased blood pressure and a faster heart beat on.
With a ten to one hundred patients experience Atomoxetine side effects like irritability, mood swings, insomnia, indigestion, rash, itching, fatigue and weight loss.
What should be considered when taking Atomoxetine?
With simultaneous use of Atomoxetine and other agents that on the same enzyme (cytochrome 2D6) are degraded, there may be a mutual influence, because usually a drug is preferentially degraded and the other accumulates in the body. Examples of such drugs are antidepressants such as MAOIs (such as tranylcypromine, moclobemide) and SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Fluoxetine, Paroxetine), antiallergic agents (such as Terbinafine) and drugs for heart rhythm problems (such as quinidine).
Means, which influence the heart rhythm in a certain way (a QT prolongation effect), should not be combined with Atomoxetine. For such substances there are numerous examples such as remedy for psychosis and schizophrenia, drugs for heart rhythm problems, antibiotics and antidepressants.
The effect of β 2agonists, which are used for acute treatment (such as Salbutamol) or duration of treatment (such as salmeterol, formoterol) for asthma may be enhanced by the combination with Atomoxetine. This may occur, for example high blood pressure and rapid heartbeat. Simultaneously, Atomoxetine antagonize the effects of high blood pressure medicine.
Since the data for taking Atomoxetine in pregnancy and lactation is limited, it should be dispensed with treatment. According to animal studies is Atomoxetine in breast milk.
As with antidepressants can cause ingestion of Atomoxetine in adolescents to increased suicidal behavior. Risk youth should be monitored accordingly.
The study location is not a safe and effective use of Atomoxetine in children and adolescents aged six years and adults, however, in patients over 65 years.
The treatment of patients with hepatic impairment should be performed only with reduced Atomoxetine dosage.
How to obtain medicines containing the active ingredient Atomoxetine
Atomoxetine is only available on prescription and is therefore available only by a prescription at the pharmacy.
Since when Atomoxetine is known?
The active ingredient Atomoxetine has been approved in Germany in 2005 for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD. In 2013, the extension of the approval was granted on the treatment of adults. Since the patent protection expires no earlier than in 2017, sells far only the original equipment manufacturers (Eli Lilly and Company) preparations containing the active substance Atomoxetine.