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The active ingredient Diphenhydramine is an antiallergic agent (antihistamine) of the first generation, which acts in addition to nausea. Because he promotes as a side effect of sleep, he is also approved as a sleep aid. Here you can read everything you need to action and use of Diphenhydramine, side effects and interactions.
How Diphenhydramine acts
The endogenous neurotransmitter histamine plays an important role in defense responses against invading germs and toxins. If an infection occurs, or the Low poison the immune system causes the so-called mast cells stored distribute the histamine and other chemical messengers. This means that the affected tissue is supplied with blood strengthened. In addition, other white blood cells are attracted and the blood vessels more permeable. Not least, the tissue swells, so that the immune cells can migrate better. In short: It comes to an inflammatory response
In some cases, however, this protective reaction of the immune system is undesirable, such as when it manifests itself as an allergic reaction to pollen, food or insect bites. These can then be specifically suppress a so-called antihistamine such as Diphenhydramine. This drug occupies the docking sites (receptors) on the body’s histamine, so that this can no longer work.
Diphenhydramine as a first-generation antihistamine (ie as one of the erstentdeckten substances in this class) overcomes also very good, the blood-brain barrier. In the brain the body’s neurotransmitter histamine is involved, inter alia, in the regulation of the sleep-wake rhythm – if this regulation is disturbed by antihistamines, occurs fatigue as a side effect to. Second-generation antihistamines the blood-brain barrier can hardly overcome, whereby the fatigue fails.
In addition, Diphenhydramine also acts to dampen the vomiting center in the brain stem and thus suppresses nausea and vomiting.
Up, reduction and elimination of Diphenhydramine
The drug is taken in the form of its salt Diphenhydramine (Diphenhydramine hydrochloride) as a tablet and passes through the intestinal lining into the blood. When used as a rectal capsule of drug on the mucosa of the rectum enters the bloodstream. The highest blood levels are reached after one to four hours.
Diphenhydramine is degraded to inactive metabolites in the liver and excreted by the kidneys in the urine. After about four hours, the half of the active substance is eliminated from the body.
When will Diphenhydramine used?
In the meantime, there are no drugs approved in Germany with Diphenhydramine to relieve allergic reactions more. The newer antihistamines are preferred because they have fewer side effects. However, Diphenhydramine is still asleep and staying asleep than promoting agent component of some sleeping pills.
In addition, it is still used to treat nausea and vomiting, but the related drug Dimenhydrinate is also here now being used more often.
Diphenhydramine should be used as self-medication, even temporarily.
How Diphenhydramine is used
For the treatment of insomnia a tablet is taken with 50 milligrams of Diphenhydramine as a 30 to 15 minutes before bedtime. It should be ensured that the sleep duration is long enough because the active ingredient else seems even the next morning and can lead to fatigue and impairment of reactivity. The duration of treatment should be a few days, however, a maximum of two weeks.
As a remedy for nausea and vomiting rectal Diphenhydramine be introduced accurately as suppositories into the anus. The insertion can be facilitated if the capsule is moistened with water. , If symptoms persist, can be up to three times a day a rectal capsule to be introduced.
Tablets are nausea and vomiting less useful because they sometimes can not even reach the intestine and release their active ingredient by the vomiting.
What are the side effects of Diphenhydramine?
The most common complaint is made after taking Diphenhydramine as a soporific on fatigue, drowsiness and impaired concentration the next day, especially after insufficient sleep duration. When taking anti-nausea commonly occurs as a side effect on fatigue.
Further possible Diphenhydramine side effects are, for example, heartburn, blurred vision and discomfort during urination.
More rarely, the skin is sensitive to strong sunlight. Sometimes occur changes in blood count and the intraocular pressure increases.
What should be considered when taking Diphenhydramine?
While you are taking Diphenhydramine no attenuating or calming drugs (sleeping pills, sedatives, pain relievers, antidepressants or seizure disorders) occupied and no alcohol should be drunk. Which would otherwise augment the effect excessively. Also by antihypertensive drugs, the effect of Diphenhydramine can increase.
Diphenhydramine and some other drugs slow down the conduction in the heart muscle (called QT prolongation). Has anyone already a QT prolongation (“Long QT Syndrome”) or taking medication with QT-prolonging effect time, Diphenhydramine should not be used – not even time-shifted to the other medications. Otherwise, it may lead to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Examples of such drugs are anti-arrhythmic agents, certain antibiotics, malaria drugs, other antihistamines, dehydrating agent and cure for psychosis and schizophrenia.
During pregnancy and lactation Do not take Diphenhydramine. Studies have shown that it may be teratogenic and inhibits the flow of milk from nursing mothers.
Children from the age of twelve and older patients should not take Diphenhydramine at reduced doses. The latter may not involve enlarged prostate, otherwise threatens a urinary retention.
After taking Diphenhydramine may you operate heavy machinery or participating in the road.
How to obtain medicines with Diphenhydramine
preparations with single doses up to 50 milligrams of Diphenhydramine to taking a tablet, rectal capsule or suppository can be purchased without a prescription at the pharmacy.
Since when Diphenhydramine is known?
The active ingredient Diphenhydramine in 1943 discovered by Professor George Rieveschl at the University of Cincinnati in the United States. Only three years later he was admitted as the first antihistamine by the US FDA as a drug. In subsequent years, the related drug Dimenhydrinate was developed from Diphenhydramine, acts less sleep inducing. In the 1960s it was discovered that Diphenhydramine increases serotonin levels in the brain and therefore potentially effective against depression – it was the model of the first SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) Fluoxetine. There are now numerous generic and non-prescription sleep products containing Diphenhydramine .