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The active ingredient Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic (diuretic) from the class of thiazide diuretics. Through the increased withdrawal of water, the blood pressure can be reduced, relieving the cardiovascular system and flushed water retention in the tissues (edema). Here you can read more about Hydrochlorothiazide: effects, use, side effects and interactions
How Hydrochlorothiazide acts
Hydrochlorothiazide acts directly in the kidneys. There, the total volume of blood per day is passed about three hundred times. It is squeezed through a filter system, the renal corpuscles, the so-called primary urine. This primary urine still contains the same concentration of salts and small molecules (such as sugars and amino acids) such as the blood. The primary urine is then via the renal tubules, where it is concentrated to the secondary or final urine in the renal pelvis, ureter and finally transported to the bladder. In the renal tubules and water are absorbed back for the body still usable and high-energy substances (salts, sugars, amino acids). So from the day produced in an adult 180 liters primary urine about two liters of final urine, so urine.
Hydrochlorothiazide blocked in the renal tubule proteins of the cells lining the tubules. These proteins take sodium and chloride, that is saline, back into the body. This recovery also water is “tightened” in the body, so less is excreted. By blocking this transporter proteins so (water excretion) found an increased “diuresis” instead.
Due to the increased withdrawal of water, also decreases the effective blood volume and the amount of accumulated water in the tissue. Thereby, the blood pressure, so that the heart has to work less intensively decreases. The workload on the heart and close to the heart vessels.
taking, degradation and excretion of Hydrochlorothiazide
After taking the drug Hydrochlorothiazide is mostly absorbed from the intestine into the blood and can be found there about 75 percent after two to five hours. It exerts its effect in the renal tubules, which is noticeable about one to two hours after ingestion. Finally, the active ingredient through the kidneys is excreted in the urine. Approximately six to eight hours after ingestion of the drug has left half of the body.
When will Hydrochlorothiazide used?
The diuretic Hydrochlorothiazide is applied at:
- heart failure (congestive heart failure)
- water retention in the tissues (edema)
Often Hydrochlorothiazide is administered in combination with other active ingredients that are to act on the underlying disease more targeted (for example, in heart failure with ACE inhibitors).
In chronic underlying diseases the diuretic can be applied over the long term.
How Hydrochlorothiazide is applied
Usually, Hydrochlorothiazide is taken in pill form, namely without chewing the food with a glass of water. They are taken once daily in the morning. At very high doses of Hydrochlorothiazide, it may be mounted on two cans divide the total amount (taking the morning and early evening).
At the beginning of therapy can be prescribed a higher dosage, the maintenance dose for treating high blood pressure is usually 12.5 milligrams Hydrochlorothiazide. Especially when rid of edema very high doses of up to one hundred milligrams Hydrochlorothiazide can be prescribed per day.
Should there be a combined dosage form additionally contained active ingredients, dosage instructions may be different.
What are the side effects of Hydrochlorothiazide?
With more than one in ten patients experience side effects that are based on the high water and electrolyte loss. Examples are low sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride levels (hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypochloraemia), elevated blood lipids and increased calcium levels (hypercalcemia).
Often (between one in ten and one hundred patients) show Hydrochlorothiazide side effects such as excessive levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia, which can result in gout to gout attacks), to high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia), nausea, vomiting, impotence and hypotension when rising from a seated or lying position (orthostatic hypotension) – especially at the beginning of therapy with Hydrochlorothiazide
What should be considered when taking Hydrochlorothiazide?
The reduction in blood pressure due to Hydrochlorothiazide may be excessively increased by the concomitant use with other active ingredients. These include in particular other diuretics, cardiovascular drugs such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors (Captopril, Enalapril), and nitrates (for angina pectoris), also sleeping pills from the group of barbiturates, tricyclic antidepressants, other vasodilating agents and alcohol.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are often taken as a painkiller (such as acetylsalicylic acid / aspirin, Naproxen, Diclofenac), the effect of Hydrochlorothiazide weaken.
Caution is advised when concomitant use of drugs with a narrow therapeutic index – ie drugs whose dosage must be adhered to exactly, because it comes quickly to overdosing or underdosing. Such agents are about cardiac glycosides such as digitoxin and Digoxin, and mood stabilizers such as lithium. In combination with Hydrochlorothiazide blood level controls are recommended.
Diabetics should regularly check their blood sugar levels if you are taking Hydrochlorothiazide.
Since Hydrochlorothiazide can cause pregnant women to an insufficient supply of the placenta and thus the child, it should not be used during pregnancy.
The drug comes in small amounts in breast milk, so nursing mothers should stop breast-feeding if necessary.
Hydrochlorothiazide is not approved for children and adolescents.
Diuretics like Hydrochlorothiazide are not recommended in severe renal impairment, but can be used in mild or moderate renal dysfunction.
How to obtain drugs with Hydrochlorothiazide
medicines containing the active substance Hydrochlorothiazide are recipe in each dosage, pack size and combination and in pharmacies.
Since when Hydrochlorothiazide is known?
The diuretic Hydrochlorothiazide was developed in 1955 by chemist George least evens at the pharmaceutical company Ciba-Geigy and already expelled from 1958th It was one of the first drugs that could reduce effective and reliable blood pressure. Meanwhile, many combination medicines and generics with the active ingredient Hydrochlorothiazide are offered.