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The active ingredient Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic and is indicated for the treatment of bacterial urinary tract infections. Although it was previously only used as an antibiotic of the second round of voting, it is since 2011, according to the current treatment guidelines again a drug of first choice. Here you can read more about the effects and use of Nitrofurantoin, side effects and other important information.
How Nitrofurantoin acts
The antibiotic Nitrofurantoin is a so-called prodrug: it is only at the site of action is converted (in the urinary tract) into its active form. The conversion is done by bacterial enzymes after the drug from the intestine was absorbed into the blood and as soon as it is delivered through the urinary tract to the outside: Nitrofurantoin penetrates the bacteria contained in a urinary tract infection here. Inside the bacterial cells convert certain enzymes (nitroreductases) that do not occur as in man, Nitrofurantoin to the active and effective form. This attacks the bacterial genome and dismembered it, but also acts selectively destructive to another for the cell vital metabolic enzymes.
Because the active form of Nitrofurantoin has many different targets in the bacterial cell, the probability that the bacteria develop resistance to the antibiotic, quite low.
The antibiotic inhibits not only the growth of bacteria, but also kill them selectively, which is why we speak with Nitrofurantoin from a “bactericidal antibiotic”.
Up, degradation and excretion of Nitrofurantoin
Nitrofurantoin reaches the highest urine levels about four to five hours after ingestion. About half of the ingested drug is metabolised to inactive metabolites. These are also excreted in the urine and can cause a harmless brown color of urine.
When will Nitrofurantoin used?
The antibiotic Nitrofurantoin is used to treat acute, uncomplicated cystitis. “Uncomplicated” here means that there are no symptoms, the TALK for worse diseases or disease processes such as or discharge.
In some cases, as with a congenital or acquired narrowing of the urinary tract or repeated, chronic urinary tract infections, a preventive treatment with Nitrofurantoin may come into question.
In an acute infection, the duration of use of Nitrofurantoin is usually five to seven days, to prevent it can – but at lower doses -. to maximum of six months include
How Nitrofurantoin is applied
Nitrofurantoin is distributed generally throughout the day taken with 100 milligrams in three to four divided doses. For capsules with sustained release (so-called “release capsules”) is reduced to two to three capsules of 100 milligrams dosage. To be taken at an interval of six to eight hours for a meal with a glass of water.
The antibiotic should be at an acute infection as long as your doctor prescribes it occupied – even if the symptoms improve earlier
When bowing taking lower dosages are chosen, usually one tablet in the evening after the last urination.
What are the side effects of Nitrofurantoin?
During therapy with Nitrofurantoin enter the treated side effects such as fluid retention in the tissue and in more than ten percent. In the event of allergic reactions, a doctor should be informed.
More Nitrofurantoin side effects are at a ten to one hundred patients, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, pneumonia, cough and chest pain.
What should be considered when taking Nitrofurantoin?
In general, exist between Nitrofurantoin and others agents relatively few interactions, since the drug is activated only in the urine and acts. However, some active ingredients may prevent the antibiotic from the intestine hindering such as remedies for heartburn (such as magnesium or aluminum salts) and antinauseants (such as Metoclopramide).
means that dampen the parasympathetic nervous system (such as atropine or propantheline), delay the absorption of Nitrofurantoin in the intestine and the excretion in the urine, but this is not a disadvantage in principle.
drugs and foods that make the urine alkaline (such as many types of vegetables, citrus fruits or milk), inhibit the excretion of Nitrofurantoin. The urine acidifying substances (such as meat), however, promote the excretion.
Since you can run the application of Nitrofurantoin to vomiting and diarrhea, possibly the safety of oral agents for contraception is not given enough. In affected cycle further contraceptive measures should also be taken.
When pregnant and lactating women Nitrofurantoin should not be used because the child may have shown harmful effects in animal experiments. Infants should receive the active ingredient in a correspondingly reduced dose no earlier than after the third month of life. Even in children and adolescents a decrease in the dose is required.
In the elderly and patients with kidney disease must precede the application of Nitrofurantoin necessarily a kidney function test can be performed to check whether the antibiotic can be applied.
General should be drunk always much in urinary tract infections.
How to obtain drugs with Nitrofurantoin
medication with the drug Nitrofurantoin available after medical prescription at the pharmacy.
Since when Nitrofurantoin is known?
Since the 1940s, we set out to search for chemically manufactured antibiotics from nitrofuran type. This led to the discovery of Nitrofurantoin, which although only sufficient concentrations in the urine reached, but precisely for this reason came for UTIs for use from the mid-1950s. In Germany also are generics with the active ingredient Nitrofurantoin are available.