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Paracetamol is one of the most important drugs against pain and fever. It was developed in the US and Germany, and is now included in many medications. The non-opioid analgesics (analgesic) is generally well tolerated. After Ibuprofen preparations preparations with Paracetamol, the best-selling non-prescription painkillers are (prescription are packages with a maximum of ten grams of acetaminophen). Pregnancy and lactation are no exclusion criteria for the application. In accordance with reduced dosage, the pain and fever reducer can be given in principle at any age. Here you can read everything about the effect of Paracetamol, adverse reactions and applications.
How Paracetamol acts
The exact mechanism of pain and fever agent is not known until today. But scientific studies showed several potentially be enhancing effects on the body, which explain the analgesic and antipyretic effect.
Unlike the active ingredients also used as a pain and fever reducer and pain mediation play a role. Non-acidic non-opioid analgesics such as acetaminophen have only a poor anti-inflammatory effect, but a good antipyretic effect.
Paracetamol influenced also on the endocannabinoid system, which conveys calming and analgesic effects, and the serotonin system. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter of the nervous system (neurotransmitters), which fulfills multiple functions. Among other things, acts on the serotonin cardiovascular system, blood clotting, and the gastrointestinal tract and in the brain plays an important role as a “happiness hormone”.
In the current research other mechanisms of action of pain and fever agent yet to be discussed.
The maximum concentration in the blood is achieved by oral ingestion of the active ingredient after 30 to 60 minutes, for rectal administration (suppositories) after three to four hours. The time until the drug is metabolized and excreted half of the liver, is one to four hours (half-life). The excretion of the active ingredient is inactivated through the kidneys.
When will Paracetamol used?
Paracetamol is used for pain and fever, sometimes in combination with other analgesic drugs (such as acetylsalicylic acid = ASA or codeine).
Normally, it takes only a short time to use. In certain cases, however, prescribe a long-term use of the doctor.
How Paracetamol is applied
In the occasional ingestion against mild pain as the drug is used mainly in tablet form.
Especially for use in children, toddlers and infants are acetaminophen suppositories. This can usually be applied without problems, whereas tablets by children are often regurgitated. In addition, toddlers and infants are often not yet in a position to take a tablet with a drink of water – they choke on them often. For each age group, partly classified in terms of body weight, there are special low-dose Paracetamol preparations.
Especially because of the antipyretic effect of Paracetamol is used for colds and flu.
Doctors administer to their patients the drug sometimes as a syringe (injection).
Combination preparations such as Paracetamol plus aspirin, acetaminophen plus codeine or the triple combination of acetaminophen, aspirin and caffeine (for the treatment of tension headaches and easily migraines) show a better analgesic effect than the single agents.
What are the side effects of Paracetamol?
Paracetamol side effects are relatively rare and usually due to existing underlying diseases.
At low-dose, long-term use, it can happen, paradoxically, that Paracetamol causes headaches (“analgesic headache”). It must then be discontinued.
In high-dose, long-term use and in single Paracetamol overdose liver damage can be expected. The liver can no longer fulfill its role as detoxification organ – one also speaks of a Paracetamol poisoning, showing the typical signs of liver failure. From an overdose of Paracetamol is called from a single dose of six grams or more.
What should be considered when taking acetaminophen?
The pain and fever reducer must not be used in severe liver and kidney damage, a certain enzyme deficiency (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency) and excessive alcohol consumption (alcoholism). The same applies in case of hypersensitivity (allergy) to the active substance.
With regard to young patients (children), pregnant and lactating women is little concern with short-term, low-dose application. For application and dosage a doctor or pharmacist should be consulted.
Paracetamol and alcohol
Because of the Paracetamol active ingredient is like alcohol metabolized by the liver, occurs in alcoholics and people with a high consumption of alcohol in a double burden of detoxification organ, which can not always be compensated. In these patients, the painkiller can trigger. In general should be avoided during administration of acetaminophen alcohol.
How to obtain drugs with acetaminophen
Up to a total of ten grams per drug package (tablets) is the painkiller in Germany available without a prescription at the pharmacy. Paracetamol suppositories are not affected by this rule due to the slower uptake of active compound.
Higher-dose tablets and injectable solutions are subject to prescription.
Since when Paracetamol is known?
Paracetamol related substances have been since 1886 investigated (acetanilide) due to its analgesic and antipyretic effect. On the basis of set of US chemists Harmon Northrop Morse at Johns Hopkins University in 1877 for the first time the substance Paracetamol ago. The optimization of the active ingredient of acetanilide over phenacetin to Paracetamol achieved through targeted development of the molecular structure. Acetaminophen and phenacetin were indeed in 1887 the first clinically tested by the German physician Joseph von Mering. First, however, phenacetin was found better, why Paracetamol initially fell into oblivion. 1947 David Lester and Leon could Greenberg show that phenacetin to Paracetamol is metabolized and as effective as it is.
Paracetamol was first placed on the United States in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. (acquired by Bayer) on the market -. as a direct competitor to aspirin, which was one of the few agents against mild pain at the time