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The active ingredient Pentoxifylline is used as a so-called Rheologikum to improve blood circulation. As a xanthine derivative is caffeine, the stimulating agent in coffee, related. By Pentoxifylline improves the flow properties of the blood, it also contributes to the normalization of blood coagulation. Here you can read everything you need to Pentoxifylline. Effect, application and side effects
How Pentoxifylline acts
The effect of Pentoxifylline is explained by two complementary effects of the drug.
effect on the blood vessels
Pentoxifylline passes after taking over the blood to the muscle layer in the walls of blood vessels. There, the drug inhibits the breakdown of the body’s messenger cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). The result is that the vessel walls have a lower voltage (tone), are therefore placed on. This more blood flows, especially in the very small blood vessels of the body. Likewise, in vascular occlusive diseases improved blood flow to the affected extremity is often achieved by using Pentoxifylline.
effects on red blood cells
Pentoxifylline directly affects the red blood cells (erythrocytes). These are numerically the most common blood cells and are distinguished in that they have a nucleus and are biconcave in shape. Thanks to their malleability they can move through very narrow blood capillaries through, even if they have a smaller diameter than normal erythrocytes. Pentoxifylline promotes this deformability.
Pentoxifylline also affects the immune system cells in the blood (leukocytes) and the platelets (thrombocytes). Thus, it affects immune-dampening and anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant.
Up, degradation and excretion of Pentoxifylline
After taking Pentoxifylline is rapidly and completely absorbed in the intestine, however, converted to about three-quarters before entering the large circulation in the liver. However, the most common conversion product shows the same effects as Pentoxifylline. The highest blood levels are measured approximately one hour after ingestion. After one and a half hours, about half of the active substance and its degradation products via the kidneys is excreted in the urine.
When will Pentoxifylline used?
In Germany the drug Pentoxifylline is only approved for the treatment of peripheral arterial circulatory disorders and blood flow related inner ear dysfunction. The former often occur by a blood clot in the leg arteries and may be prepared by the so-called lead to decreased resilience “intermittent claudication”: The parties must go in because of leg pain repeatedly stop. The inner ear dysfunction can lead to sudden hearing loss and.
Outside the registration areas (“off-label”) Pentoxifylline is also used to treat other diseases. These include the so-called multi-infarct dementia, disorders of peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy), fatty liver and endometriosis.
The duration of treatment depends on the type and severity of the disease and is determined individually by your doctor.
How Pentoxifylline is applied
The Rheologikum Pentoxifylline may be taken in the form of prolonged-release tablets (tablets with sustained release) passed directly as an infusion solution into a vein or. The total daily dose usually lies between 300 and 1200 milligrams of Pentoxifylline. They should be divided into two or three doses, which are taken after each meal. The infusion may be carried out independently of meals. Usual doses are tablets with Pentoxifylline 400 or 600 milligrams per release tablet.
The intake of other anticoagulants or blood circulation-promoting agents may be useful.
What are the side effects of Pentoxifylline?
Very often, so if more than one in ten patients who take adverse drug reactions (ADRs) such as nausea, vomiting, bloating and on.
Common Pentoxifylline side effects include flushes (facial redness with heat sensations), dizziness, tremors, come.
Very rarely allergic reactions. Here occur shortly after taking shortness of breath, swelling of the mucous membranes and on. The active ingredient is then discontinued immediately and notify a doctor.
What should be considered in the application of Pentoxifylline?
Especially drugs that act as Pentoxifylline anticoagulant or a hypotensive, with simultaneous administration can act strengthened. This can lead to increased blood pressure drops with dizziness and weakness, as well as to an increased bleeding tendency. The blood pressure or clotting levels should therefore be checked especially at the beginning of combined treatment with Pentoxifylline regularly.
In the treatment of diabetes mellitus or prediabetes (an early form of diabetes) it must be ensured that Pentoxifylline may reduce blood sugar levels in addition. This can lead to hypoglycaemia faster.
For the treatment of asthma, the chemically related Theophylline is often used. Concomitant administration can lead to a reduced degradation of Theophylline, which accumulates in the body of this. This can be dangerous, as even a slight overdose of Theophylline may result in severe side effects after itself. Concomitant administration of Theophylline and Pentoxifylline therefore the Theophylline dosage may need to be decreased by the treating physician.
During pregnancy Pentoxifylline should not be used due to lack of available data. During lactation the drug goes only in small amounts in breast milk, which is why it can be taken after a careful risk-benefit assessment by the doctor.
For use in children and adolescents There are no data, so the intake is not recommended. In the elderly (over 65 years) and patients with hepatic or renal impairment may require a dose reduction is necessary.
How to obtain drugs with Pentoxifylline
Because of the potential serious side effects can Pentoxifylline only after doctor’s prescription (ie with a prescription) purchased in a pharmacy.
Since when Pentoxifylline is known?
The chemically closely related drug Theophylline was extracted in 1888 by the German biologist Albrecht Kossel from tea leaves and then described. The further development of the substance to Pentoxifylline, however, takes some time. By modification of Theophylline could be reached that the substance selective effect on the flow properties of blood. Pentoxifylline in 1984 approved in the US and 1985 in Germany. Since the patent protection has already expired, there are numerous generics with the active ingredient Pentoxifylline on the market.