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The drug Risperidone is a so-called atypical antipsychotic (atypical antipsychotic) and is mainly used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In contrast to the first generation antipsychotics Risperidone has fewer side effects and is therefore often used as the first choice. Here you can read everything worth knowing about Risperidone, adverse reactions and effects.
How Risperidone acts
Psychotic symptoms such as delusions and associated in the brain. Antipsychotics block the docking of dopamine to the nerve cells and thus its effect.
The first generation of these agents (such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol) was very typical side effects. These extrapyramidal motor disorders (EPMS) can already be seen in the normal therapeutic dose as so-called parkinsonism – occur side effects that are reminiscent of the symptom Eder Parkinson’s disease. In this disease die from dopamine neurons distribution, which leads to depletion of dopamine in the midbrain. This solves the typical symptoms muscle rigidity (rigor), muscle tremors () and slowness of movement (bradykinesia) from to immobility (akinesia). These serious side effects occur when the atypical antipsychotics to Risperidone in therapeutic doses or only at greatly reduced.
As a highly potent antipsychotic antipsychotic potency (ie efficacy) of Risperidone approximately fifty times higher than that of the first antipsychotic chlorpromazine.
Up, reduction and elimination of Risperidone
After taking Risperidone is completely absorbed from the intestine into the bloodstream and reaches there after one to two hours its maximum concentration. In the body it is metabolized in the liver to hydroxyRisperidone, which is just as effective. The active ingredient and the antipsychotic-effective metabolites are excreted within 24 hours, about half, mainly via the urine.
When is Risperidone used?
The fields of application of the drug Risperidone include firstly the treatment of schizophrenia and moderate to severe manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder.
On the other hand Risperidone dementia / Alzheimer’s patients are given for persistent aggression, as a short-term treatment (up to six weeks) .. The long-term treatment is considered to be critical as had been shown in large studies that they a may result in increased mortality.
Also for short-term treatment up to six weeks Risperidone can be used in children (five years) and adolescents for the treatment of aggression in conduct disorder. Prerequisite is, the children were classified as mentally retarded (mentally retarded) or below average intelligence. In addition, psychosocial and educational measures are recommended.
How Risperidone is applied
Usually, Risperidone than one tablet taken twice daily. The recording is not affected by food. Treatment is started at a low dose; this is then slowly increased until the desired Risperidone effect has occurred.
In addition to tablets, there are other forms available. For people with swallowing difficulties, there are preparations for injection or as an orodispersible tablet, and for patients with gastric tube solutions for ingestion. Aggressive patients sometimes defend themselves against the administration of medications. For them, a Risperidone depot syringe was developed – the product must be injected every two weeks only once and then continues for two weeks free of the constant drug, greatly simplifying the treatment
What side effects does Risperidone?
Very common (affects more than one in ten patients) occur as Risperidone side effects Parkinson’s symptoms, somnolence, insomnia, and on.
More side effects with every tenth to hundredth patients are respiratory infections, ear, and urinary tract, an increase in the hormone prolactin in the blood, weight gain, insomnia, depression, vertigo, conjunctivitis, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, cough, abdominal pain and indigestion , rash, muscle spasm and pain and urinary incontinence.
What should be considered when taking Risperidone?
The drug Risperidone is like many other drugs metabolized in the liver. He takes up hardly any influence on the metabolism of other drugs. However, Risperidone should not be combined with drugs that affect the impulse conduction in the heart (ie, a so-called prolongation of the QT interval cause). These include, for example:
- means to control heart rhythm (antiarrhythmics) such as quinidine, procainamide, Amiodarone and Sotalol
- antidepressants such as Amitriptyline and maprotiline
- other antipsychotics
If other drugs are taken, this interaction should be selected individually by the doctor or pharmacist.
Some drugs have an inhibiting or stimulating effect on certain liver enzymes that govern the degradation of Risperidone. Thus the blood level may increase or decrease, which may affect the effectiveness. Examples of such drugs are Carbamazepine, Phenytoin and phenobarbital (for epilepsy), Fluoxetine and Paroxetine (for depression), rifampicin (antibiotic) and Verapamil (for cardiac arrhythmias etc.).
Risperidone should not be used during pregnancy unless the physician considers it essential. Before an application during lactation benefits and risks of treatment must be carefully weighed against each other.
How to obtain medication with Risperidone
Risperidone must be purchased in each dosage on prescription and only in pharmacies.
Since when Risperidone is known?
One of the first atypical antipsychotics Risperidone was developed by the pharmaceutical company Janssen-Cilag 1988-1992 and 1994 approved in the US for the treatment of schizophrenia. The patent protection ran from 2003-04, after which a number of generics with the drug Risperidone came on the market.